Sunday, February 23, 2020
Personal Assessment of Management Skills - Assignment Example The areas that I scored the highest were in the motivation segment and the solving problems creatively. These two areas showed that I love coming up with solutions for a specific problem. I also love motivating others by giving them advice and counselling them when the need arises. Two areas that showed that I needed improvement were gaining power and influence and building effective team and teamwork. It is important that I learn how to positively influence other employees to lead them in an effective manner. I should develop better skills in building teamwork with my colleagues. This is because teamwork is a significant aspect for any organization. After noting down my personal scores, I also noted down the scores of my associates. These are people who know me well enough to be in a position to rate and assess my management skills. From the results, I was able to determine the areas that showed the greatest variance between my personal assessment and the assessment of my associates. The areas that showed the greatest variance are motivating others and empowering and delegating. There are reasons that can explain the great variance in these two areas. In motivating others, my associates may have considered the instances where despite my efforts, I may not effectively motivate others as they expected of me. In empowering and delegating, my associates could have also overlooked the small acts of motivation I make to people without necessarily having to talk about
Friday, February 7, 2020
Native American Iconography and depictions in Art of 18th and early 19th century - Research Paper Example While not all such depictions were blatantly racist or derogatory (though of course some were), almost all contributed in some way to the dissolution of the Native American culture that is seen today. One of the most well-known artists and writers of the late 1800s is George Catlin. Catlin traveled extensively in North America, South America, and Europe, and wrote numerous illustrated books about his experiences (Reich 111). One of these was the ponderously titled Ã¢â¬Å"Letters and notes on the manners, customs, and condition of the North American IndiansÃ¢â¬ , in which Catlin describes at length many of the tribes of North American native that existed while he was traveling (Catlin and Shippard). In both his words and his sketches, Catlin seems to have the utmost respect for the people about whom he is writing, at least relative to other writers of his time. For example, in Plate 11 of Ã¢â¬Å"Letters and notesÃ¢â¬ , Catlin sketches a man named Stu-mick-o-sucks, who was at that time the chief of the Blackfoot Nation, and in Plate 13 sketches his wife Eeh-nis-kim. Catlin makes positive comments about their ceremonial dress that they were wearing when he drew them, and states that Eeh-nis-kim had a Ã¢â¬Å"pleasing countenanceÃ¢â¬ . He also referred to Stu-mick-o-sucks as a Ã¢â¬Å"dignityÃ¢â¬ , in the same way that he might refer to a foreign king of Europe (Catlin and Shippard). In addition to his sketches of Stu-mick-o-sucks, Catlin sketched other warriors and Native American tribesmen in their full ceremonial dress. These sketches made up Plates 29-31 in Ã¢â¬Å"Letters and notesÃ¢â¬ . He referred to their clothing as Ã¢â¬Å"handsomeÃ¢â¬ and in all ways indicated that he found their clothing to be interesting and even beautiful. This viewpoint differed from others of his time that found their manner of dress to be primitive and barbaric (Catlin and Shippard). Catlin expounds at length on the methods that the Native Americans used to soften the leather that
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Research on Baroda dairy product Essay Executive Summary This project has been undertaken in order to understand the Customer Perception and liking towards Baroda Dairy Products. The task is to know and measure its effectiveness in terms of Price , Quality , Quantity , Packaging , Product availability, Product delivery, Product maintenance (storage), merits and demerits of the existing distribution chain, areas and scope of improvement and finding ways to make the Product more user friendly and Available. There are various ways to carry out this project and reach desired objectives for e. g. , Expert Opinion, In-depth interview with Customers, primary data collection and analysis etc. but out of all these options available for data collection, the method chosen was primary data collection and analysis i. e. questionnaire based data collection and analysis. The reasons for choosing this technique for project are as under: This method gives the opportunity to directly interact with the Customers and helps in knowing what they actually think of the Baroda Dairy Products. The most reliable source of information from all the other mentioned above. Gives a better insight of Customer perception as compared to other technique. This technique will yield an Unbiased, To the Point and Reliable result. It is best to know from the Customers as to what they think about the Existing Product and Satisfaction Level. From this project I came to know about co-operative sector, dairy industry, distribution and handling of highly perishable product like milk. I also came to know what Customers think of current Products and Services of Baroda Dairy. Customer loyalty to Baroda Dairy and its products. I got to know various merits of the existing distribution channel. I also discovered some areas of distribution channel which if worked upon can yield more profitable gains and can also increase the availability of Products. I critically analyzed the answers that were provided by Customers. In order to get quality information, I used questionnaire as a tool which helped me in this project. After collection of the desired data, the data has been critically analyzed to draw conclusion out of mathematical data. The collected data has been categorized and presented in to the meaningful diagrammatic presentations following its proper classification. All these analytical information is subjected to the conclusions following justified interpretation of the results drawn from the statistical tools. Introduction Dairy industry is one of the growing sectors in the Indian Food Processing Industry. This sector Grew at CAGR of 3. 7 % in the last decade. An everyday useful industry which was into rags during 1940s is now one of the most performing industry in the country, courtesy Ã¢â¬â White Revolution. But still the market is dominated by unorganized sector which contributes about 80% of the total milk marketing in the country. Thus lies a very large scope for the organized sector to enter in this industry. Dairy contributes to 16% of consumer spend on food Ã¢â¬â 18% in Urban areas of the country and 15% in rural areas. It is one of the most important and exceptionally well performing industries. Each and every state has its own Federation that governs various co-operatives in each state which are into processing of milk and other milk products and the Governing body for these state federations is National Dairy Development Board. One of the main reasons for the progress of dairy industry in India was the white revolution and the Co-operative movement. Also what has added to its development is the linkage it has created between producers and consumers which has eliminated the middle man. Also strengthening of production, procurement, infrastructure and technology has made dairy farming IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest self-sustainable rural employment generator. Also it is notable that dairy sector has gained prominence over the years as it delivers one of the most important food product i. e. Milk and its by-products without which it is really very difficult to live. Thus looking at the current scenario, following things can be analyzed: On the production side: Slow growth in productivity likely to increase demand- supply gap There is a need to promote interventions that would increase production efficiencies. Need to secure availability of fodder and high quality breeds. Promoting entrepreneurship in large herd dairy farming Ã¢â¬â through PPP. There is increasing interest in Intensive dairy farming Ã¢â¬â increasing demand farm gate price. On the demand side: Indian dairy market offers diverse opportunities to tap into. Unique nature of the market requires entrepreneurs to study it carefully before entry. India has the credit of being the largest producer as well as the biggest consumer of milk in the world. It also has the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest dairy herd (comprised of cows and buffalos). In 2010-11, livestock generated output worth INR 2,075 billion (at 2004-05 prices) which comprised 4% of the GDP and 26% of the agricultural GDP. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s milk production accounts for 16% of total global output. The dairy industry is expected to grow 4-5% per annum. A budgetary outlay of INR 31, 560 Crores is recommended by the working group for 12th Five Year Plan of Planning commission of India for animal husbandry and dairy sector to achieve growth rate of 6%. In the past 20 years, milk production in India has doubled and has reached the 116. 2 million tonnes a year thus becoming IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s No. 1 farm commodity. The current market size of the dairy industry is INR 2. 6 trillion and is estimated to grow up to INR 3. 7 trillion by 2015. The matters relating to livestock production, preservation, protection and improvement of livestock dairy development comes under Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying Fisheries of the Ministry of Agriculture, GoI. Value-added products like Whole milk powder, Skimmed milk powder, Condensed milk, Ice cream, Butter and Ghee have immense potential for export. As per the latest statistics of National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), the dairy cooperative network in the country includes 177 milk unions covering 346 districts and over 1, 33,000 village-level societies with a total membership of nearly 14 million farmers. All the statistics given above are indicators of a flourishing dairy sector in India providing suitable opportunities to the industries engaged in the dairy business. India: MilkÃ¢â¬â¢s New Horizon A growing population and increased incomes from an economic boom are the driving forces behind a surge in dairy product demand in India. One key to the success of recent consumption trends has been an American standby: the refrigerator. Dairy Demand in an Emerging Economy A new study reports that the demand for milk in India will rise by a compound annual growth rate of about 4% over the next few years (RNCOS, 2012). Research shows that as incomes increase consumption of animal products, specifically milk and dairy products, intensifies (Wenge Fu et al. , 2012). In fact, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s upturn in demand for dairy products far outweighs the growth in demand for animal products such as meat and eggs. India owes this large demand for milk to its largely vegetarian population. Dairy product demand in India has increased dramatically in both rural and urban sectors. However, as a larger population is emigrating from rural areas to cities an even greater demand may be placed on dairy products. Between 1980 and 2010, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s level of urbanization increased from 23 to 30 percent of the population. The second largest country in the world, India is projected to grow from 1. 2 billion people in 2010 to just under 1. 7 billion by 2050 with 55% of that population being urban. This increase in buying power allows consumers to purchase durable goods such as refrigerators that enable larger consumption of dairy products than ever before. Moreover, a more urban population also offers the increased opportunity for cultural exchange, leading to increased consumption of meat and dairy products not only in India but across Asia. All of these factors coupled together lead to growing international market opportunities for milk and dairy products in India previously unnoticed in the global dairy industry. India is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest producer of milk. However, the majority of that milk is buffalo, followed by cow and goat milk as shown in Table 1 (FAOSTAT, 2013). Since 2005, 53% of the fluid milk produced in India has come from buffalo, 43% from cows and 4% from goats. In 2011, India produced 34% more milk than the U. S. up from 19% more in 2005 (Table 2). For dairy cow production, the United States produced 70% more milk in 2011 than India. One study by the OECD-FAO in 2011 suggests that India will have sufficient production to meet demand for milk and its products (excluding butter) through 2020. Nevertheless, as Wenge Fu et al. note, the rapid increase in population and changes in consumption patterns make such estimations difficult. Fluid milk demand is projected to grow at 10. 2% per year, while production is projected to grow by 3. 7% based on 1994 to 2004 growth rates. Competition for land to produce grains and feed products for animal production may limit agricultural growth in all sectors. This pressure on natural resources and its effect on production could lead to a greater reliance on imported dairy products. In the short run, IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s dairy sector is well positioned to accommodate the rapid growth in dairy product consumption. An increasingly urbanized population with a greater disposable income will drive demand leading to opportunities from the global milk market to supply this new generation of Indian consumers. Table 1. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Milk Production by Species from 2005 to 2011 in Tonnes (FAOSTAT, 2013) Year Item 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Avg Buffalo Milk (whole, fresh) Production in Tonnes 52,070,000 54,382,000 56,630,000 57,132,000 59,201,000 62,350,000 62,350,000 % of total production 54% 55% 54% 53% 53% 53% 52% 53% Cow Milk (whole, fresh) Production in Tonnes 39,759,000 41,148,000 44,601,000 47,006,000 47,825,000 49,960,000 52,500,000 % of total production 42% 41% 42% 43% 43% 43% 44% 43% Goat Milk (whole, fresh) Production in Tonnes 3,790,000 3,818,000 4,481,000 4,478,000 4,467,000 4,594,000 4,594,000 % of total production 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% Total Production in Tonnes 95,619,000 99,348,000 105,712,000 108,616,000 111,493,000 116,904,000 119,444,000 Table 2. Milk Production in India and the United States from 2005 to 2011 (FAOSTAT, 2013) Year Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 All Milk Production in Tonnes India 95,619,000 99,348,000 105,712,000 108,616,000 111,493,000 116,904,000 119,444,000 USA 80,254,500 82,463,000 84,189,100 86,177,400 85,880,500 87,474,400 89,015,200 % Difference between India and U. S. 19% 20% 26% 26% 30% 34% 34% Cow Milk Production in Tonnes India 39,759,000 41,148,000 44,601,000 47,006,000 47,825,000 49,960,000 52,500,000 USA 80,254,500 82,463,000 84,189,100 86,177,400 85,880,500 87,474,400 89,015,200 % Difference between U. S. and India 102% 100% 89% 83% 80% 75% 70% As we have already seen how the production of milk and its consumption have increased over the past decade thus the problem of it distribution and availability also arises. This brings the problem of Effective distribution channel into light. For the same purpose the study has been undertaken in order to Measure the Effectiveness of the Distribution System of Baroda Dairy. Introduction to Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. The GCMMF is the largest food products marketing organisation of India. It is the apex organisation of the Dairy Cooperatives of Gujarat. Over the last five and a half decades, Dairy Cooperatives in Gujarat have created an economic network that links more than 3. 1 million village milk producers with millions of consumers in India. The cooperatives collect on an average 9. 4 million litres of milk per day from their producer members, more than 70% of whom are small, marginal farmers and landless labourers and include a sizeable population of tribal folk and people belonging to the scheduled castes. The turnover of GCMMF (AMUL) during 2010Ã¢â¬â11 was 97. 74 billion (US$1. 7 billion). It markets the products, produced by the district milk unions in 30 dairy plants. The farmers of Gujarat own the largest state of the art dairy plant in Asia Ã¢â¬â Mother Dairy, Gandhinagar, Gujarat Ã¢â¬â which can handle 3. 0 million litres of milk per day and process 160 MTs of milk powder daily. GCMMF is a unique organization which is created by farmers, managed by competent professionals serving a very competitive and challenging consumer market. It is a true testimony of synergistic national development through the practice of modern management methods. GCMMF Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), is Indias largest food product marketing organisation with annual turnover (2012-13) US$ 2. 54 billion. Its daily milk procurement is approx 13 million lit per day from 16914 village milk cooperative societies, 17 member unions covering 24 districts, and 3. 18 million milk producer members. It is the Apex organisation of the Dairy Cooperatives of Gujarat, popularly known as AMUL, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products which are good value for money. Its success has not only been emulated in India but serves as a model for rest of the World. It is exclusive marketing organisation of Amul and Sagar branded products. It operates through 48 Sales Offices and has a dealer network of 5000 dealers and 10 lakh retailers, one of the largest such networks in India. Its product range comprises milk, milk powder, health beverages, ghee, butter, cheese, Pizza cheese, Ice-cream, Paneer, chocolates, and traditional Indian sweets, etc. GCMMF is Indias largest exporter of Dairy Products. It has been accorded a Trading House status. Many of our products are available in USA, Gulf Countries, Singapore, The Philippines, Japan, China and Australia. GCMMF has received the APEDA Award from Government of India for Excellence in Dairy Product Exports for the last 13 years. For the year 2009-10, GCMMF has been awarded Golden Trophy for its outstanding export performance and contribution in dairy products sector by APEDA. For its consistent adherence to quality, customer focus and dependability, GCMMF has received numerous awards and accolades over the years. It received the Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award in1999 in Best of All Category. In 2002 GCMMF bagged Indias Most Respected Company Award instituted by Business World. In 2003, it was awarded the The IMC Ramkrishna Bajaj National Quality Award 2003 for adopting noteworthy quality management practices for logistics and procurement. GCMMF is the first and only Indian organisation to win topmost International Dairy Federation Marketing Award for probiotic ice cream launch in 2007. The Amul brand is not only a product, but also a movement. It is in one way, the representation of the economic freedom of farmers. It has given farmers the courage to dream. To hope. To live. GCMMF An Overview
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Huck FinnÃ¢â¬â¢s Experiences In Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Twain presents the problem of slavery in America in the 19th Century. Twain poses this problem in the form of a character named Huckleberry Finn, a white boy raised in the antebellum South. Huck starts to question his view regarding slavery when he acquaints himself more intimately with a runaway slave while he himself tries to run away. HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s development as a character is affected by societyÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on his experiences while growing up in the South, running away with Jim, and trying to save Jim. Although Huck decides to free Jim, HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s deformed conscience convinces him that he is doing the wrong thing. HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences in the society impact his conscience by raising him to believe that human beings can be property. This quote by Pap Finn is taken from a conversation that he is having about a black professor from the North, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦prowling, thieving, infernal, white-shirted free nigger, and-Ã¢â¬ (Twain, pg 27). In this quote, Pap Finn expresses his feelings towards black people, and he is not the only person to think this way. Pap feels as if the most accomplished black man is always beneath the basest white man. When Huck returns to Aunt Sally, they have this conversation: Aunt Sally: Ã¢â¬Å"Good Gracious! anybody hurt?Ã¢â¬ Huck: Ã¢â¬Å"NoÃ¢â¬â¢m. Killed a niggerÃ¢â¬ Aunt Sally: Ã¢â¬Å"Well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s lucky; because sometimes people do get hurtÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Twain, pg 221) Southern society seems to share this idea of how white people belittle blacks. Aunt Sally shows how it does not really matter about a Ã¢â¬ËniggerÃ¢â¬â¢ being shot and how she does not consider that a person getting hurt. SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on Huck is clearly evident when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"They took my nigger, w... ...as he must be white inside. This shows how in his mind, white is good and black is bad, but since Jim is black and he is doing something good, then he must be white. HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences and surroundings change him day by day. Even though Jim is black and he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t changed, Huck has changed and now recognizes Jim as a human being and not as property. Through out the entire novel, Huck has grown as a character because of the experiences that he has gone through. Along with society's impact, running away with Jim and trying to save Jim have also changed and impacted Huck's character. Huck's views on slavery have changed due to his experiences with Jim. Although the end of the novel does lead Huck to how he was at the beginning, the reader can still see how much Huck has changed and grown. Huck does not view Jim as property anymore, but as a human being with feelings.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Rabindranath Tagore (1861Ã¢â¬â1941), poet, playwright, novelist, philosopher, composer, painter, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, was the towering figure of the Bengali Renaissance. Among his lasting achievements was the founding in 1921 of his Ã¢â¬Å"world university,Ã¢â¬ Visva-Bharati, at Santiniketan, some 120 miles north of Kolkata. In 1940, the nineteen-year-old Satyajit Ray enrolled there to study arts. RayÃ¢â¬â¢s father, SukumarÃ¢â¬âwho died when his son was twoÃ¢â¬âhad been a close friend of TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s. But by the time Ray arrived at Santiniketan, the Nobel Laureate had only a year to live, and the young student saw little of him, feeling daunted by his venerable status. Nonetheless, Ray always retained a deep regard for TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s work, and when, in 1948, he was planning a career in the cinema, he collaborated with a friend on a screen adaptation of one of TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s novels, Ghare baire (The Home and the World). The project fell through, and some years later, rereading the script, Ray found it Ã¢â¬Å"an amateurish, Hollywoodish effort which would have ruined our reputation and put an end to whatever thoughts I might have had about a film career. see more:essay on favourite movie Ã¢â¬ (Ray eventually did film the novel, from a totally new script, in 1984. ) In 1961, now internationally established as a director, with The Apu Trilogy, The Music Room (1958), and Devi (1960) to his credit, Ray returned to Tagore, filming three of his stories as Three Daughters (Teen kanya) and a documentary, Rabindranath Tagore, to celebrate the centenary of the great manÃ¢â¬â¢s birth. Ray described the latter film, an official tribute to IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s national poet, as Ã¢â¬Å"a backbreaking chore. Ã¢â¬ But there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the least sense of a chore about RayÃ¢â¬â¢s next engagement with TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Charulata (1964), often rated the directorÃ¢â¬â¢s finest filmÃ¢â¬âand the one that, when pressed, he would name as his own personal favorite: Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the one with the fewest flawsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âis adapted from TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s 1901 novella Nastanirh (The Broken Nest). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s widely believed that the story was inspired by TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with his sister-in-law, Kadambari Devi, who committed suicide in 1884 for reasons that have never been fully explained. Kadambari, like Charulata, was beautiful, intelligent, and a gifted writer, and toward the end of his life, Tagore admitted that the hundreds of haunting portraits of women that he painted in his later years were inspired by memories of her. Right from the outset of his career, with Pather panchali (1955), Ray had shown himself to be exceptionally skilled at conveying a whole world within a microcosm, focusing in on a small social group while still relating it to the wider picture. Virtually all of his finest filmsÃ¢â¬âThe Apu Trilogy, The Music Room, Days and Nights in the Forest (1969), Distant Thunder (1973), The Middleman (1975)Ã¢â¬âachieve this double perspective. But of all his chamber dramas, Charulata is perhaps the subtlest and most delicate. The setting, as with so many of RayÃ¢â¬â¢s movies, is his native Kolkata. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s around 1880, and the intellectual ferment of the Bengali Renaissance is at its height. Among the educated middle classes, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s talk of self-determination for India within the British EmpireÃ¢â¬âperhaps even complete independence. Such ideas are often aired in the Sentinel, the liberal English-language weekly of which Bhupatinath Dutta (Shailen Mukherjee) is the owner and editor. A kindly man, but distracted by his all-absorbing political interests, he largely leaves his wife, the graceful and intelligent Charulata (Madhabi Mukherjee), to her own resources. The visual elegance and fluidity that Ray achieves in Charulata are immediately evident in the long, all-but-wordless sequence that follows the credits and shows us Charu, trapped in the stuffy, brocaded cage of her house, trying to amuse herself. (At this period, no respectable middle-class Bengali wife could venture out into the city alone. ) Having called to the servant to take Bhupati his tea, she leafs through a book lying on the bed, discards it, selects another from the bookshelfÃ¢â¬âthen, hearing noises outside in the street, finds her opera glasses and flits birdlike from window to window, watching the passersby. A street musician with his monkey, a chanting group of porters trotting with a palanquin, a portly Brahman with his black umbrella, signifier of his dignified statusÃ¢â¬âall these come under her scrutiny. When Bhupati wanders past, barely a couple of feet away but too engrossed in a book to notice her, she turns her glasses on him as wellÃ¢â¬âjust another strange specimen from the intriguing, unattainable outside world. Throughout this sequence, RayÃ¢â¬â¢s camera unobtrusively follows Charu as she roams restlessly around the house, framing and reframing her in a series of spacesÃ¢â¬âdoorways, corridors, pillared galleriesÃ¢â¬âthat emphasize both the Victorian-Bengali luxury of her surroundings and her confinement within them. Though subjective shots are largely reserved for CharuÃ¢â¬â¢s glimpses of street life, the tracking shots that mirror her progress along the gallery, or move in behind her shoulder as she glides from window to window, likewise give us the sense of sharing her comfortable but trammeled life. The only deviation from this pattern comes after sheÃ¢â¬â¢s retrieved the opera glasses. A fast lateral track keeps the glasses in close-up as she holds them by her side and hurries back to the windows, the camera sharing her impulsive eagerness. Under the credits, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen Charu embroidering a wreathed B on a handkerchief as a gift for her husband. When she presents it to him, Bhupati is delighted but asks, Ã¢â¬Å"When do you find the time, Charu? Ã¢â¬ Evidently, itÃ¢â¬â¢s never occurred to him that she might feel herself at a loose end. But now, becoming vaguely aware of CharuÃ¢â¬â¢s discontent and fearing she may be lonely, he invites her neÃ¢â¬â¢er-do-well brother Umapada and his wife, Mandakini, to stay, offering Umapada employment as manager of the SentinelÃ¢â¬â¢s finances. Manda, a featherheaded chatterbox, proves poor company for her sister-in-law. Then BhupatiÃ¢â¬â¢s young cousin Amal (Soumitra Chatterjee) unexpectedly arrives for a visit. Lively, enthusiastic, cultured, an aspiring writer, he establishes an immediate rapport with Charu that on both sides drifts insensibly toward love. Ã¢â¬Å"Calm Without, Fire Within,Ã¢â¬ the title of RayÃ¢â¬â¢s essay on the Japanese cinema, could apply equally well to Charulata (as the Bengali critic Chidananda Das Gupta has noted). The emotional turbulence that underlies the film is conveyed in hints and sidelong gestures, in a fleeting glance or a snatch of song, often betraying feelings only half recognized by the person experiencing them. In a key scene set in the sunlit garden (with more than a nod to Fragonard), Amal lies on his back on a mat, seeking inspiration, while Charu swings herself high above him, reveling in the ecstasy of her newfound intellectual and erotic stimulation. Ray, as the critic Robin Wood observed, Ã¢â¬Å"is one of the cinemaÃ¢â¬â¢s great masters of interrelatedness. Ã¢â¬ This garden scene, which runs some ten minutes, finds Ray at his most intimately lyrical. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the first time the action has escaped from the house, and the sense of freedom and release is infectious. From internal evidence, itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that the scene involves more than one occasion (Charu promises Amal a personally designed notebook for his writings, she presents it to him, he declares that heÃ¢â¬â¢s filled it), but itÃ¢â¬â¢s cut together to give the impression of a single, continuous event, a seamless emotional crescendo. Two moments in particular attain a level of rapt intensity rarely equaled in RayÃ¢â¬â¢s work, both underscored by music. The first is when Charu, having just exhorted Amal to write, swings back and forth, singing softly; RayÃ¢â¬â¢s camera swings with her, holding her face in close-up, for nearly a minute. Then, when Amal finds inspiration, we get a montage of the Bengali writing filling his notebook, line superimposed upon line in a series of cross-fades, while sitar and shehnai gently hail his creativity. In an article in Sight & Sound in 1982, Ray suggested that, to Western audiences, Charulata, with its triangle plot and Europeanized, Victorian ambience, might seem familiar territory, but that Ã¢â¬Å"beneath the veneer of familiarity, the film is chockablock with details to which [the Western viewer] has no access. Snatches of song, literary allusions, domestic details, an entire scene where Charu and her beloved Amal talk in alliterations . . . all give the film a density missed by the Western viewer in his preoccupation with plot, character, the moral and philosophical aspects of the story, and the apparent meaning of the images. Ã¢â¬ Among the details that might elude the average Western viewer are the recurrent allusions to the nineteenth-century novelist Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (1838Ã¢â¬â94). A key figure of Bengali literature in the generation before Tagore, Bankim Chandra (sometimes referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"the Scott of BengalÃ¢â¬ ) wrote a series of romantic, nationalistic novels and actively fostered the young TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s career. In the opening sequence, itÃ¢â¬â¢s one of Bankim ChandraÃ¢â¬â¢s novels that Charu takes down from the bookshelf, while singing his name to herself; and when, not long afterward, Amal makes his dramatic first entry, arriving damp-haired and windblown on the wings of a summer storm, heÃ¢â¬â¢s declaiming a well-known line of the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s. The coincidence points up the affinity between them; by contrast, when Bhupati recalls incredulously that a friend couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t sleep for three nights after reading a Bankim Chandra novel (Ã¢â¬Å"I told him, Ã¢â¬ËYou must be crazy! Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ), it emphasizes the empathetic gulf between him and his wife. Music, too, is used to express underlying sympathies: Both Charu and Amal are given to breaking spontaneously into song, and two of TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s compositions act as leitmotifs. We hear the tune of one of them, Ã¢â¬Å"Mama citeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Who dances in my heart? Ã¢â¬ ), played over the opening images, and Amal sings another, Ã¢â¬Å"Phule phuleÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Every bud and every blossom sways and nods in the gentle breezeÃ¢â¬ ), that Charu later takes up in the garden scene as they grow ever closer emotionally. (Manda, who has observed the pair together in the garden, afterward slyly sings a line of this song to Amal. ) Ray weaves variations on both songs into his score. Another that Amal sings for Charu was composed by TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s older brother Jyotirindranath, the husband of Kadambari Devi. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying theme of pent-up emotions trembling on the verge of expression is counterpointed both on a political levelÃ¢â¬âBhupati and his friends see in the Liberal victory at Westminster in April 1880 the chance of greater self-determination for IndiaÃ¢â¬âand in the situation of Charulata herself, a gifted, sensitive woman yearning toward emancipation but slipping unconsciously toward a betrayal of her husband. To Western eyes, all three members of the triangle might seem willfully obtuse or impossibly naive. This again would be a misapprehension born of unfamiliarity with Bengali society, where, as Ray pointed out, a husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brotherÃ¢â¬âin this case, a close cousin, which is much the same in Bengali custom and termsÃ¢â¬âis traditionally entitled to a privileged relationship with his sister-in-law. This relationship, playfully flirtatious, Ã¢â¬Å"sweet but chaste,Ã¢â¬ between a wife and her debar, is accepted and even encouraged. Charu and Amal simply stray, half unknowingly, across an ill-defined social border. Ray was always known as a skilled and sympathetic director of actors. Saeed Jaffrey, who starred in The Chess Players (1977), bracketed him and John Huston as Ã¢â¬Å"gardener directors, who have selected the flowers, know exactly how much light and sun and water the flowers need, and then let them grow. Ã¢â¬ Soumitra Chatterjee, who made his screen debut when Ray cast him in the title role of the third film of The Apu Trilogy, The World of Apu (1959), gives perhaps the finest of his fifteen performances in RayÃ¢â¬â¢s films as AmalÃ¢â¬âyoung, impulsive, a touch ridiculous in his irrepressible showing off, bursting with the joy of exploring life in its fullness after his release from the drab confines of a student hostel. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s superbly matched by the graceful Madhabi Mukherjee as Charu, her expressive features alive with the ever-changing play of unaccustomed emotions that she scarcely knows how to identify, let alone deal with. She had starred in RayÃ¢â¬â¢s previous film, The Big City (1963); he described her as Ã¢â¬Å"a wonderfully sensitive actress who made my work very easy for me. Ã¢â¬ The other three main actors had also appeared in The Big City, though in minor roles. Shailen Mukherjee, playing Bhupati, was principally a stage actor; this was his first major screen role. Despite his professed inexperience (Ray recalled him saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Manikda [RayÃ¢â¬â¢s nickname], I know nothing about film acting. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be your pupil, you teach meÃ¢â¬ ), he succeeds in making Bhupati a thoroughly likable if remote figure, well-intentioned but far too idealistic and trusting for his own good. Gitali RoyÃ¢â¬â¢s occasional veiled glances hint that Mandakini isnÃ¢â¬â¢t, perhaps, quite as empty-headed as Charu supposes; she certainly isnÃ¢â¬â¢t above flirting with Amal on her own account. As her husband, Umapada, Shyamal Ghosal expresses with his whole body language his envy and resentment of BhupatiÃ¢â¬âsignals that his brother-in-law of course completely fails to pick up on. Ray rarely used locations for interiors, preferring whenever possible to create them in the studio, though so subtly are the sets constructed and lit that weÃ¢â¬â¢re rarely aware of the artifice. Charulata includes few exterior scenes; almost all the action takes place in the lavishly furnished setting of BhupatiÃ¢â¬â¢s house. As always, Ray worked closely with his regular art director, Bansi Chandragupta, providing him with an exact layout of the rooms and detailed sketches of the main setups, and accompanying him on trips to the bazaars to find suitable furniture, decorations, and props. The result feels convincingly authentic, evoking a strong sense of period and of a class that ordered their lives, as critic Penelope Houston has put it, by Ã¢â¬Å"a conscious compromise between Eastern grace and Western decorum. Ã¢â¬ Though he readily acknowledged the contributions of his collaborators, Ray came as close as any director within mainstream cinema to being a complete auteur. Besides scripting, storyboarding, casting, and directing his films, he composed the scores (from Three Daughters on) and even designed the credit titles and publicity posters. Starting with Charulata, he took control of yet another filmmaking function by operating his own camera. Ã¢â¬Å"I realized,Ã¢â¬ he explained, Ã¢â¬Å"that working with new actors, they are more confident if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t see me; they are less tense. I remain behind the camera. And I see better and get the exact frame. Ã¢â¬ Charulata was the best received of all RayÃ¢â¬â¢s films to date, both in Bengal and abroad. In Bengal, it was generally agreed that he had done full justice to the revered TagoreÃ¢â¬âeven if some people still harbored reservations about the implicitly adulterous subject matter. After seeing the film at the 1965 Berlin Film Festival, where it won the Silver Bear for best director, Richard Roud noted that it was Ã¢â¬Å"distinguished by a degree of technical invention that one hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t encountered before in RayÃ¢â¬â¢s films,Ã¢â¬ but that Ã¢â¬Å"all the same, it is not for his technique that one admires Ray so much: no enumeration of gems of mise-en-scene would convey the richness of characterization and that breathless grace and radiance he manages to draw from his actors. Ã¢â¬ From its lyrical high point in the garden scene, the mood of Charulata gradually if imperceptibly darkens, moving toward emotional conflict and, eventually, desolationÃ¢â¬âa process reflected in the restriction of camera movement and in the lighting, which grows more shadowy and somber as Bhupati sees his trust betrayed and Charu realizes what sheÃ¢â¬â¢s lost. Inspired, as he readily admitted, by the final shot of TruffautÃ¢â¬â¢s The 400 Blows, Ray ends the film on a freeze-frameÃ¢â¬âor rather, a series of freeze-frames. Two hands, CharuÃ¢â¬â¢s and BhupatiÃ¢â¬â¢s, reaching tentatively out to each other, close but not yet joined. RayÃ¢â¬â¢s tanpura score rises in a plangent crescendo. On the screen appears the title of TagoreÃ¢â¬â¢s story: Ã¢â¬Å"The Broken Nest. Ã¢â¬ Irretrievably broken? Ray, subtle and unprescriptive as ever, leaves that for us to decide.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
INDEPENDENT STUDY LEVEL THREE Exploring the relationship between physical health and mental health for the person with dementia. 4915 Words Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"Dementia results in a progressive decline in multiple areas of functioning, including memory, reasoning, communication skills and the skills to carry out daily activities. Alongside this decline, individuals may develop behavioural and psychological symptoms such as depression, psychosis, aggression and wandering, which complicate care and can occur at any stage of the illness. Family carers of people with dementia are often old and frail themselves with high levels of depression and physical illnessÃ¢â¬ (DOH 2009) The following Essay will consider theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This figure represents 8% of the total Manchester population who are over 65. However, this rises to 22% of those who are over 80 years of age. On the basis of using national planned trajectories, by the year 2026, it has been estimated that there will be approximately 5,770 people with a diagnosis of dementia living in Manchester. This figure is expected to rise further by 2050 to 8,244. The National Strategy aims to provide a framework to enable local organisations to deliver improved services which also address health inequalities. Manchester has consequently developed its own local dementia strategy, with the aim of meeting the needs of those people living in Manchester with a diagnosis of dementia and their family carers. The Manchester Dementia Strategy notes that there is a link between dementia and deprivation. It also reports that Manchester is the third most deprived local authority in England. Subsequently, if older people in Manchester do indeed have a higher level of poor health The Manchester Dementia strategy suggests that this could further impact on the incidence of dementia. This wouldShow MoreRelatedPersonal Project Is Much More Than A Project783 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesout of it what you put in, so what you come back with is up to you. For my personal project, I investigated the benefits of animal therapy on individuals in both short term and long-term care facilities. Inquiring into the psychological connection between animals and people through animal therapy was a way to combine my interests in psychology and medicine with my new puppy. It was also personal because I have elderly grandparents who enjoy spending time with their pets and from personal experienceRead MoreAgeism And Ageism1059 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesparticular group. Longevity is the maximum lifespan. The life expectancy at birth in 2015 was 71.4 years (73.8 years for females and 69.1 years for males). Women live longer than men do all around the world. Worldwide average life expectancy increased between 2000 and 2015. The improvement child survival and expanded access to antiretroviral for treatment of HIV contributes in the increase of life expectancy for the last decades. Regionally Canada, Western Europe, North Atlantic, and Australia have theRea d MoreThe Effects Of Music Therapy On Improving The Qol2971 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesInternational (2012), Ã¢â¬Å" there are 36 million people living with dementia worldwide in 2010 and will increase to 66 million by 2030Ã¢â¬ (p. 7). There is no treatment and prevention currently available and many elderly people are diagnosed with the dementia. Dementia gradually destroys the cells in the brain responsible for memory, thinking, judgment, and behavior. The day-to-day activities and simple tasks can be confusing and frustrating for the dementia patient, reducing their quality of life (QoL). MaintainingRead MoreDifferent Types Of Abuses During The United States1736 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages No other demographics have profited from these medical breakthrough than the senior citizen or the elderly particularly in the United States. The National Center on Elder Abuse which is a part of the Department of Health and Human Services notes by 2050, people of the ages between 65 and older will make up 20 percent of the total population of the United States, which represent the largest growing segment of the population (NCEA, 2010). With the longevity of this population comes also the risingRead MoreAttachment Theory Of The Human Condition1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAttachment is an integral part of the human condition, through it bonds are created between child and caregiver and these bond help contribute to a developing personÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self and the world around them. These feeling of connection carry over from parent, to child, to later life from the person to their partner and then their own children. Attachment theory grew out of the understanding that young children in their early fragile stages of development require protection and security to increaseRead MoreEvaluation Of A Good Practice Guide2400 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesmay be physical or mental such like dementia, stroke victims, or age related issues like walking. It will also relate to those working in end of life care, advising how to improve their service delivery. The main purpose of this good practice guide is to be an aid to those in this industry, enabling the user of this guide to have an understanding of those who they are caring for. It will be discussing how society and other differing factors can influence the life of an elderly disabled person alsoRead MoreThe Effects Of Bereavement And Loss On Older People2367 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesPerson A within my placement at a residential home had just received bad news that her sister had died within the month of November. Observing their behaviour on a weekly basis while I was at work allowed me to interpret and analyse how their behaviour changed and when they experienced stress due to this loss. Bereavement and loss can have a major impact on older people, they are coping with the decline and death of close family members and friends but however they themselves are probably experiencingRead MoreMindfulness Training For Carers Of People With Dementia1931 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMindfulness tra ining for carers of people with dementia; impact on carersÃ¢â¬â¢ wellbeing Introduction This essay explores explores evidence of how caring for people with dementia (PwD) might have detrimental effects on a carersÃ¢â¬â¢ physiological and psychological wellbeing. It describes reviews the practice of mindfulness, and its potential health benefits,; and examines considers literature which argues which evaluates the impact of mindfulness training has a positive, therapeutic impact on the wellbeingRead MorePatient Centered Pain Control Of Elderly People With Dementia6067 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesÃ¢â¬Æ' Patient Centered Pain Control in Elderly People with Dementia There is a growing geriatric population of people with dementia (the subpopulation) throughout the world that are living in pain constantly. Because dementia as a condition with multifaceted symptomology manifested by advancing overall decline of cognitive ability, it causes severe and distinctive barriers to pain assessment and pain management in this subpopulation. The existence of multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy and the decliningRead MoreDance Vs. The Mind And Body1839 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesexperience level. When dancing at a wedding, taking a zumba class, standing at the ballet barre or dancing for a prestigious company around the world; the one thing these all have in common is that dance is making a person physically and mentally feel good. Dance is not only a physical experience, it is also a cognitive one. The social aspect of dance is was makes it exciting. It is one of the easiest ways to let go of some of the stress in your life. Dance is good for your body physically and can
Friday, December 27, 2019
In the introduction to the poetry anthology Caroling Dusk, Countee Cullen described the poet Arna Bontemps as being, ...at all times cool, calm, and intensely religious yet never takes advantage of the numerous opportunities offered them for rhymed polemics. Bontemps might have published poetry, childrens literature, and plays during the Harlem Renaissance but he never gained the fame of Claude McKay or Cullen. YetÃ BontempsÃ work as an educator and librarian allowed the works of the Harlem Renaissance to be revered for generations to come. Early Life and Education Bontemps was born in 1902 in Alexandria, La., to Charlie and Marie Pembrooke Bontemps. When Bontemps was three, his family moved to Los Angeles as part of the Great Migration. Bontemps attended public school in Los Angeles before heading to Pacific Union College. As a student at Pacific Union College, Bontemps majored in English, minored in history and joined the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. The Harlem Renaissance Following Bontemps college graduation, he headed to New York City and accepted a teaching position at a school in Harlem. When Bontemps arrived, the Harlem Renaissance was already in full swing. Bontemps poem The Day Breakers was published in the anthology, The New Negro in 1925. The following year, Bontemps poem, Golgatha is a Mountain won first prize in the Alexander Pushkin contest sponsored by Opportunity. Bontemps wrote the novel, God Sends Sunday in 1931 about an African-American jockey. That same year, Bontemps accepted a teaching position at Oakwood Junior College. The following year, Bontemps was awarded a literary prize for the short story, A Summer Tragedy. He also began publishing childrens books. The first, Popo and Fifina: Children of Haiti, was written with Langston Hughes. In 1934, Bontemps published You Cant Pet a Possum and was fired from Oakwood College for his personal political beliefs and library, which were not aligned with the schools religious beliefs. Yet, Bontemps continued to write and in 1936s Black Thunder: Gabriels Revolt: Virginia 1800, was published. Life After the Harlem Renaissance In 1943, Bontemps returned to school, earning a masters degree in library science from the University of Chicago. Following his graduation, Bontemps worked as the head librarian at Fisk University in Nashville, Tenn. For more than twenty years, Bontemps worked at Fisk University, spearheading the development of various collections on African-American culture. Through these archives, he was able to coordinate the anthology Great Slave Narratives. In addition to working as a librarian, Bontemps continued to write. In 1946, he wrote the play, St. Louis Woman with Cullen. Ã One of his books, The Story of the Negro was awarded the Jane Addams Childrens Book Award and also received the Newberry Honor Book. Bontemps retired from Fisk University in 1966 and worked for the University of Illinois before serving as curator of the James Weldon Johnson Collection. Death Bontemps died on June 4, 1973, from a heart attack. Selected Works by Arna Bontemps Popo and Fifina, Children of Haiti, by Arna Bontemps and Langston Hughes, 1932You Cant Pet a Possum, 1934Black Thunder: Gabriels Revolt: Virginia 1800, 1936Sad-Faced Boy, 1937Drums at Dusk: A Novel, 1939Golden Slippers: An Anthology of Negro Poetry for Young Readers, 1941The Fast Sooner Hound, 1942They Seek a City, 1945We Have Tomorrow, 1945Slappy Hooper, the Wonderful Sign Painter, 1946The Poetry of the Negro, 1746-1949: an anthology, edited by Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps, 1949George Washington Carver, 1950Chariot in the Sky: a Story of the Jubilee Singers, 1951Famous Negro Athletes, 1964The Harlem Renaissance Remembered: Essays, Edited, With a Memoir, 1972Young Booker: Booker T. Washingtons Early Days, 1972The Old South: A Summer Tragedy and Other Stories of the Thirties, 1973