Thursday, August 27, 2020
1-7 Topics - Essay Example Exchange interest for cash. This is where individuals hold cash to buy products and enterprises. This is the most widely recognized type of cash request as every single individual on the planet request cash to pay for administrations and products for utilization. Interest for cash displays a negative relationship with the ostensible loan costs. As the loan fees expands decline, the interest for cash increments. At the point when the ostensible loan cost diminishes, the outcome is less appealing bonds (Langdana, 34). In the event that an individual gets a lower loan fee on the speculation, he is bound to exchange those ventures for hard money. Rising genuine livelihoods and expanding quantities of individuals utilized will build the interest for cash at each loan cost. The exchange interest for cash is emphatically identified with expansion and pay. An expansion in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s pay rises or as the costs expands, he will hold more cash that will empower him complete his day by day exchanges. Fiscal arrangement in controlling the swelling in the economy, I would suggest that the national bank brings down the loaning rates, typically to an objective of around 2-3%. Monetarists accentuated on keeping the development pace of cash consistently and utilizing fiscal approach swelling. They decided on easing back the ascent in the cash stock, and expanding loan fees. The following proposal is to modify the genuine compensation. Increment in expansion makes get pay ascend to counterbalance swelling. Anyway their genuine pay stay consistent and consequently the buying power isn't lost as long as the ostensible pay rise keep up and compensation doesn't fall. Fiscal strategy is the procedure by which the Central Bank of a nation controls cash gracefully that objectives the loan costs to improve financial dependability and development. Devices of money related strategy include: Save prerequisites this is where the money related authority applies administrative command over banks.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
MCAT contemplating is an entire diverse ball game. First off, dissimilar to class tests or state sanctioned tests managed only a couple of times each year, you choose when to take the MCAT. Having the option to deal with your own timetable methods itÃ¢â¬â¢s essential to make a structure around the test, be taught in your contemplating, and ensure youre 100% prepared when the date moves around. Claire reveals to us that from the outset she didn't have an assigned report period, and that was not a decent methodology. Ã¢â¬Å"I expected that I would step through the examination when I was ready,Ã¢â¬ says Claire. Ã¢â¬Å"This was a horrendous arrangement as I kept on delaying. When I made a course of events of 4 months, I had the option to truly center and get great work done.Ã¢â¬ Taking courses versus concentrating all alone Ã¢â¬Å"I took an in person course, which really was NOT a decent utilization of my cash. The educator taught us a few systems, yet I didn't discover it as accommodating as I was trusting. I wish that we would have learned progressively substance and approaches to recollect the entirety of the data. I for the most part read the books, watched online talks, and questioned bank type exercises, which were very helpful.Ã¢â¬ Qbanks, qbanks, qbanks!! As per Claire, perusing the books and taking light notes while joining in/watching addresses establishes an extraordinary framework to cover the entirety of the material on the test. Claire claims that making a decent establishment is a decent beginning, yet that qbanks are truly where is at. Ã¢â¬Å"Once I had an establishment, I utilized qbanks a great deal. Qbanks are great!Ã¢â¬ Separation and prevail Association is key when reading for a test that covers so much material. As per Claire, Kaplan says that understudies just need to think about 60% of the material, however Claire still felt constrained to gain proficiency with every last bit of it, which can be overpowering. Ã¢â¬Å"Trying to cover everything is unfathomably challenging,Ã¢â¬ says Claire. Ã¢â¬Å"Luckily, I had Cram Fighter to help space out the time.I attempted to read each subject for around 2-3 days and afterward change to another subject.Ã¢â¬ Take breaks As devoted and center to the MCAT as Claire might have been, she likewise recognized that taking breaks was significant for her psychological and passionate states. Claire picked Friday as her MCAT free day. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be no picnic for yourself Reading for the MCAT can be horrendously distressing, and now and again, you are your most noticeably awful adversary. Recall that in the event that you put forth a valiant effort in getting ready, you will progress nicely. The MCAT quantifies how much youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read for the MCAT, so on the off chance that you realize you have, you will do fine and dandy. Thrashing yourself has never helped anybody. Have a reasonable methodology As indicated by Claire, Ã¢â¬Å"studying for this test is an all day occupation and it is extremely hard to work/go to class and study. There is a great deal of data that should be secured and you won't have the option to learn everything. Attempt to realize the hotly debated issues very well, and have a surface level comprehension of the rest.Ã¢â¬
Ruler or Queen of the World: Disentangling Juvenile Delinquency Essay Today numerous youngsters are exposed to changing customary examples that control their connections and development between family, school and work. The known social layer that ensures a smooth procedure of socialization is gradually separating. Not at all like previously, the ways picked by adolescents are getting the chance to be progressively differing and unpredictable.Ã¢ The revamping of the work advertise, the expansion of the time of reliance of the youthful grown-ups in the family and the constrained open door given to them to be autonomous grown-ups impact the connections of these youthful grown-ups with their loved ones (World Youth Report, 2003).Ã¢ Ã¢ Ã¢ The emergency of adolescent wrongdoing is quickly getting increasingly perplexing and across the board and wrongdoing avoidance programs are either unfit to manage the current circumstance or in any case nonexistent. This is a worldwide issue, confronted by the created nations as well as creating nations too, everybody i s confronted with indistinguishable issues from our childhood faces new weights in their change from adolescence to adulthood is exposed to an assortment of stresses. A quickly developing populace, destitution, adverse lodging and bolster administrations, joblessness and underemployment, a decrease in the authority of nearby networks and congestion in poor urban regions, the disintegration of the family and insufficient instructive frameworks are a portion of the anxieties youngsters must arrangement with. Our young grown-ups these days are exposed to singular dangers paying little heed to age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, culture and nationality but at the same time are given new chances, both gainful and harmful(World Youth Report, 2003). Our childhood gave the advantage of unlawful open doors are as a rule attracted into submitting different offenses, get into illicit medications and become rough against their friends. Youngsters who live in troublesome circumstances are at more serious danger of turning out to be delinquents (United Nations Report, 2000).Ã¢ Children who are stranded or unaccompanied and with no methods for means including lodging and other essential necessities are the ones that frequently fall into adolescent misconduct (World Youth Report, 2003).Ã¢ According to United Nations report (2000) the quantity of kids in troublesome circumstances has ascended from 80 Million to 150 Million out of a range of 8 years (1992-2000). We will compose a custom exposition test on King or Queen of the World: Disentangling Juvenile Delinquency explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom paper test on King or Queen of the World: Disentangling Juvenile Delinquency explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom paper test on King or Queen of the World: Disentangling Juvenile Delinquency explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Reasons for Juvenile Delinquency One may take note of that the offenses done by adolescent delinquents are commonly reliant by financial, social and ethnic layers in a given region. One may understand that the adolescent wrongdoers are frequently found to have experienced savage practices during their youth either witnesses or casualties to such brutality (United Nations, 1995). The world youth report (2003) takes note of that the causative factors and conditions that lead to adolescent wrongdoings are frequently situated at each phase of the social structure, the general public overall notwithstanding, social establishments, gatherings and associations, and relational relationships.Ã¢ One may understand that the decision of Ã¢â¬ËcareersÃ¢â¬â¢ by these adolescent guilty parties can be gotten from a wide scope of variables the most huge of which is depicted as follows: Financial Cause For the most part auxiliary to financial insecurities that prompts monetary emergencies, political unsteadiness and winding down of significant social foundations including government funded instruction framework, open help and the family. Financial shakiness is frequently connected with joblessness and low salary families, improving the probability of inclusion in crimes of the young (World Youth Report, 2003). Social and Ethnic Causes World Youth Report, (2003) states that reprobate conduct regularly happens in social settings where there is a breakdown in the conduct of satisfactory standards, under ordinary conditions typical conduct directs that social principles and rules prevent a person from perpetrating unsuitable practices, in the settings wherein the ordinary rules lose their significance, the adolescent frequently react by taking part in inadmissible practices that frequently lead to strange and frequently crimes. Urbanization Causes An investigation of geology propose that in places where there are progressively urbanized and have higher populace the probability for criminal acts is higher contrasted with an increasingly country setting.Ã¢ This might be because of social control separation and social comprehension. Country people group regularly depend on family and network control over the young. All the more frequently the urbanized territories manage a progressively formal methodology in lawful and legal activities and an indifferent methodology that appears to be corresponded with the horror rates created inside the more urban network (World Youth Report, 2003). Family Research will show that youngsters who are exposed to adequate parental management are less likely to participate in crimes. Youngsters who are individuals from a useless family, portrayed by struggle, insufficient parental control, weak parental control, untimely opportunity are generally the kids that grow up to be delinquents (World Youth Report, 2003). It might likewise be noticed that in spite of the fact that youngsters who are individuals from distraught families who have less open doors for legitimate work and consequently confronted with a higher danger of social oversight are generally illustrative of the adolescent guilty parties. Rejection and Peer Influence The consistently expanding hole between the rich and the poor has prompted the development of the Ã¢â¬Ëothers groupÃ¢â¬â¢ or basically, the rejection of certain people or gathering of people inside the worthy social layers inside the community.Ã¢ This prohibition frequently prompts the burst of social ties, personality emergencies and assortment of impediments that doesn't allow the person to develop past the mark (World Youth Report, 2003). One may understand this is a significant social structure, when the Ã¢â¬â¢othersÃ¢â¬â¢ are oppressed frequently to mocking or noxiousness by the socially acknowledged friends it regularly prompts adversarial conduct that regularly drives the adolescent to apply exertion for acknowledgment or join a gathering of Ã¢â¬ËothersÃ¢â¬â¢ that are regularly reprobate, this Ã¢â¬ËgangÃ¢â¬â¢ turns into their primary social association where the youthful grown-up has a sense of safety and welcome and along these lines most do anything so as to remain inside that gathering, including social inadmissible practices and criminal acts (World Youth Report, 2003). Media TV and motion pictures even news reports that sensationalize and advance criminal acts like the Ã¢â¬Ëcult of heroesÃ¢â¬â¢-a portrayal of equity by physical cancelation of terrible components. Specialists have upheld that youthful grown-ups who watch vicious themed shows regularly act all the more forcefully, particularly when incited. Media may acquire brutality to the youthful personalities three different ways. One, appearing of motion pictures that portray brutality acts and that charge its crowd. Second, shows that show viciousness particularly by guardians as a standard day by day movement. Third, savagery appeared by media over sensationalizes the saint leaving less draining injuries and genuine torment that can really be felt in genuine brutality are not shown.Ã¢ The American Psychological Association delineates proof that demonstrate TV viciousness is to be accused for 10 percent of forceful conduct in kids. Forestalling Juvenile Delinquency Savagery against kids perhaps noted as a factor that jeopardizes the privileges of the child.Ã¢ It is basic that the administration and pertinent organizations submit themselves into taking care of the issue of adolescent wrongdoing. The Riyadh Guidelines discharged by the United Nations unmistakably expresses that the counteraction of adolescent misconduct is a significant viewpoint in clearing generally speaking crimes (United Nations, nd).Ã¢ Ã¢ It was noticed that early mediation is the methodology of decision if a viable wrongdoing program is to be implemented.Ã¢ Educational projects to support the young and discover elective exercises instead of unlawful conduct (Johnson, 1995) recreational exercises and youth improvement programs are fundamental to allow the adolescent to develop and be capable grown-ups (United Nations, nd).Ã¢ Ã Also, the nearby network ought to be given obligation in forestalling adolescent violations. Projects ought to be created so as to enable the ado lescent to stay away from misconduct and it is basic that the network and the nearby government bolster these endeavors (Gang 2000, 1993).Ã¢ The family as a social establishment is likewise the principal line of guard for these adolescent guilty parties, one must note that help for family should be a basic venture of the administration and if the adolescent can be controlled from inside the family the odds of him/her going out to do wrongdoings is lesser than if the family neglects to control them. All in all endeavors to battle adolescent misconduct perhaps derived as ailing in exertion optional to absence of errand arranged social work that prompts a scattered course in dealing with the adolescent guilty parties including their casualties (United Nations Report, 2000). End Adolescent wrongdoing can be induced as a multifaceted cluster of infringement of the lawful, social and moral standards, either minor or significant offense that is submitted by the youthful. One may derive that these offenses originates from an assortment of components that are unmistakably more genuine than basic negligible offenses. Destitution, absence of chances, social prohibition and a scope of facto
Friday, August 21, 2020
Business Report On Marketing Intelligence Statistical surveying causes the association to bring the information which understand the hierarchical presentation. Besides, the fruitful advertiser has concentrated available research to bring the data which is applied in the promoting exercises. Thusly, the association become becomes stable when the promoting exercises are fruitful (Kumar, 2010).. In any case, the upper hand is expanded because of the fruitful introduction of the promoting plan. For a model, the Proctor Gamble is working gigantic statistical surveying to fortify the promoting exercises which brought the bigger piece of the pie. Through this paper the key ideas of promoting examination will be converged with the diverse showcasing exercises. 1. Prerequisite One 1.1 Stages of Purchase Decision Making Process Here the buy dynamic procedure is legitimately worried about the last buyer buy dynamic procedure and the shopper buy choice is varies in the specific items to items. For instance, the purchasing conduct of toothpaste is not quite the same as I-unit. In any case, the buy choice procedure has five phases which are reflected in the accompanying figure one. http://www.seo.com/wp-content/transfers/2012/01/Consumer-Research-Process1.png Figure One: Purchase Decision Stage, Source: Jeannet and Hennessey, (2011) This figure is recommending that, shoppers experience the entirety of the phases when they have to buy (Jeannet and Hennessey, 2011). For a model, when a client need to buy a Mobile telephone, he/she needs to have need mindfulness, at that point move to the data search in the portable market, at that point make assessment between choices, at that point make buy, at long last he/she express the post buy conduct which mirror the positive or negative input. 1.2 Theories of Buyer Behavior in Terms of Individual and Market The purchasing conduct of the buyers contrasts in the distinctive market and hence exper created various speculations of customer purchasing conduct. As indicated by Czinkota and Ronkainen, (2012), there are four speculations of the purchasing conduct which is recorded in the accompanying. Complex Buying Behavior: In this circumstance, buyers have higher association in the costly, dangerous, bought rarely, and exceptionally self-expressive item. Cacophony Reducing Buying Behavior: Highly association however looks for little distinction between brands. Ongoing Buying Behavior: Low association of buyers however little brand contrasts. Assortment Seeking Buying Behavior: Have low customer association however brand distinction is criticalness. 1.3 Factors Affecting Buyer Behavior In the cutting edge showcase, buyers need to settle on various purchasing choice in various condition which is influenced by the various elements. In any case, buyer buy choice is influenced by the way of life, society, character, and brain science. This is recorded in the accompanying figure. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_dx4MOHdEf_w/THTWsxMxCjI/AAAAAAAAABk/akYObs46fF8/s1600/chart+1.jpg Figure Two: Factors influencing shopper purchasing conduct. Source: Craig and Douglas, (2009) Social: Human conduct is constrained by the way of life that is trailed by the individuals and this culture influences buying choice. Social: The social structure impacts the buying conduct of the shoppers. Individual: The individual qualities impact the buying choice of the shoppers. Mental: The mental elements impact the buying conduct of shopper like inspiration toward buying. 1.4 Relationship among Brand Loyalty, Corporate Image, and Repeat Purchasing The brand reliability, corporate picture, and continue buying have solid effect on the upper hand of a firm in the profoundly serious market. The brand reliability makes client devotion which is come about the continue buying of the client Douglas and Craig, (2009). Be that as it may, the brand dedication, corporate picture, administration, cost and administration quality prompts increment the dependable client and those faithful client is the benefit of a firm who upgrade the brand reliability and corporate picture. The brand dependability will valid when the clients have genuine mentality to make the continue buying. For instance, the Pepsi is considered as the genuine brand loyalties which have the corporate picture in the serious market. 2. Necessity Two 2.1 Types of Market Research Techniques For the most part, the statistical surveying or the advertising research is intended to gather data to actualize in the promoting exercises of the firm. Typically, the statistical surveying has the two methods which are recorded in the accompanying. Essential Research: The essential research has two different ways which is Qualitative and Quantitative research. In subjective research the examination can be structured through the open-finished inquiry and center gatherings. Anyway this examination strategy is utilized to assemble the graphic data (Dodd, 2008). Then again, the quantitative research accumulates numerical data to examine the advertising methods. The quantitative procedures are done through the reviews. Optional Research: The auxiliary research assembles data on the subject which is as of now distributed. The auxiliary research data is accumulated from the distinctive establishment like exchange affiliations, office of trade, colleges, media like paper, magazines and so forth (Dodd, 2008).. 2.2 Source of Secondary Data The auxiliary information is gathered from the various sources which are as of now distributed. The optional research data is now exists. Therefore, the essential information assortment isn't required and the auxiliary data can be assembled from the libraries, open data community, books, business production, magazines, papers, exchange affiliations, NGOs, banks, genuine states, insurance agencies, wholesalers, producer, territorial organsiation, media agents and numerous others (Dodd, 2008).. 2.3 Validity and Reliability of Market Research Findings Each exploration doesn't require the elevated level elaboration of study. Be that as it may, the advertising research needs to direct the base degree of study which makes the real consequence of the examination. The little and casual research foundation may bring the unessential or wrong outcome (Craig and Douglas, 2009). In any case, the examination legitimacy originates from the information gathering strategies, moral thought, and the cases that are done through during the arrangement of the exploration. The exploration legitimacy may impact more noteworthy procedures which referenced the similitudes of other research and assessments. A large portion of the cases the examples are too little which prompts the poor unwavering quality of the examination discoveries. 2.4 Preparing Marketing Research Plan The showcasing research plan is intended to carry the data to execute the ebb and flow advertising exercises. For a model, the statistical surveying plan for the Proctor Gamble (PG) has created to draw out the data of 4.2 billions of client discernment. Be that as it may, PG has built up the advertising exploration to legitimize the brand value in the market to give the upper hand (Ahmed et al., 2010). Hence, the organization began to provide food the buyer to discover the suitable outcome and the organization has gone through colossal measure of cash, exertion to bring the advancement. PG realizes that, the purchasers think about the items which are conveyed for the improvement of the promoting research methods. PG has effectively taken care of the statistical surveying which carried the fitting outcome to decide the advertising result. Presently, PG accepts that was the main motivation behind why the organization is put on the planets top one of the brands. 3. Prerequisite Three 3.1 Market Size Trends inside the Market The market size is determined by the all out volume or estimation of deals in the market and the all out volume is determined through the quantity of units sold and the sum spent by the client to have the expenses of products sold. To delineate this a case of UK book market can be thought of, the UK book showcase is solid and dynamic market which saw that the market size is upward. In this market, the shoppers are the fundamental driver and the distributers need to advance the new scholars books rather the old journalists (Ahmed et al., 2010). Since, the old author previously caught the market and new journalists can grow the market which increment the market size. In any case, the book showcase size is additionally extending due to genuine development of the items and administrations which assists with growing the market size. 3.2 Competitor Analysis of Tesco Tesco is the greatest grocery store chain in the UK. The most noteworthy issue is that, the UK store and food retail advertise is considered as intensely united. In the general store chain, the main five grocery store chain has the significant piece of the pie which is least more than five and these organizations are Tesco, Asda, Sainsburys, Wm. Morrison, and Somerfield. These five organizations have in excess of 80 percent of the all out piece of the overall industry in the UK. Be that as it may, the opposition between these organizations is exceptional and dynamic (Henry, 2011). Be that as it may, the opposition is starts with plan which is set to position in the market, Tesco considers Asda and Wm Morrison low value bunch who has the solid market impact in the market and Asda is the second biggest UKs general store chain. While, the Sainsburys and Somerfield are considered as the littler contenders, which have center around the more significant expense. Tesco is the biggest store chain and consider all the contenders to set the promoting exercises in the market to expand the deals of the item. In the UK general store chain, Tesco is holding the 30 percent piece of the overall industry and Asda and Sainsburys has the second and third position which has a place 16 and 17 percent piece of the pie honorably (Bagozzi Foxall, 2009). In any case, the Morrison holding the fourth position which has the 11 percent pieces of the overall industry with the obtaining of the Safeway. The comp
Paying Attention to Grammar and Spelling - When to Pay AttentionWhen you are trying to write essays for school, you want to pay attention to the important aspects of this type of writing. In addition to being able to write well and putting together a coherent and well-structured essay, you also want to pay attention to grammar and spelling.Many students find that the first time they write a paper, they just don't get it, so they stop before finishing. This is not good because you do not want your school work to be put on the back burner. You want to send it in, so that it will get into the hands of a teacher.One of the most important aspects of essay writing for school is grammar and spelling. In school, there is an onus on the student to read and understand what the writer is trying to say. Even if you are not writing a report, your work needs to be well researched and clear in the writing. Using bad grammar and spelling is like drawing attention to your poor comprehension of the ma terial.The same rule applies for writing for essay for school. Students should always pay attention to the grammar and spelling of their work.As an adult, you may feel the need to use filler words or turn your essay into a colloquial word of wisdom. However, when you are trying to write an essay for school, it is important to consider the subject matter and avoid inserting these kinds of words and ideas.Another way to help improve your essay is to take a little bit of time to write out a sentence or two each day that you can use in your essay. For example, on a Friday you could write a short paragraph to explain something about your family that happened that day. By doing this, you are getting a sense of the important ideas in your essay.If you have any interesting information about your family that was gained from visiting a museum, consider adding this in as well. It doesn't have to be exactly the same as the material you used in your essay. However, being brief and concise is a g ood idea.Finally, as you are taking care of the details, you want to pay attention to the style and language of your writing. Every person uses a different vocabulary and language, so it is important to consider the way you communicate and how your writing sounds.
Monday, June 29, 2020
Although EpictetusÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook consists of only fifty-three points, it manages to convey clearly the main ideas of Stoicism and how to act based on those principles. Despite the fact that reading all of the points in the Handbook is important in order to get a precise picture of Stoicism, simply by looking at the way in which Epictetus talks about familial relations one can get a relatively good picture of what he wants from students of Stoicism. By looking at the passages in which familial relations are detailed, one can find guidelines to three of EpictetusÃ¢â¬â¢s most important Stoic ideals (which at times overlap): how important it is to live in accordance with nature, through self-knowledge (knowledge of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s limits and finitude) and through self-control or authority over oneself.First, two scenarios that Epictetus outlines in his Handbook tie into the important Stoic theme of how to live in accordance with nature. Epictetus writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Appropriate actions are in general measured by relationships. He is a father: that entails taking care of him, yielding to him in everything, putting up with him when he abuses you or strikes you.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 20) He goes on to say that even if the father is a bad father, the child should preserve this relationship with him, because the childÃ¢â¬â¢s natural tie is not to a good father, but to a father. (Epictetus 21) Because nature has determined how father and child should act towards each other, the child should pursue actions appropriate to him or her as a child, despite the actions of the father. This example of how to pursue familial relations ties in with the HandbookÃ¢â¬â¢s overarching theme of living with nature and determining what kinds of actions are and are not in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s power. What the Stoic should do is aim to act in the way that nature dictates he should, but not be disappointed when the outcome of those actions do not satisfyÃ¢â¬âas in the case with the son being a good son but the father not being a good father. A way to look at this is to look at a marksman aiming for a target. The goal is to hit the middle of the target, but this is not totally under the control of the marksman: his fingers could sweat and slip, the gun could aim high or low because of some internal fault, or the gun could misfire completely. All the marksman can do is shoot well, not produce perfect results; if the marksman shoots well, no matter what the outcome of the shot, he or she can view the shot with success. Similarly, a son can carry out what nature demands of him in his relationship with his father, and whether or not the outcome is positive (a good relationship), the son was still successful. The actions one undertakes should be motivated by what is demanded by nature of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships, not by how other people act. However, living in tune with nature (as the example with the father/son relationship tells Stoics to do) requires a Stoic to focus on two other things. The first of these is acknowledging mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s finitude and limits, which requires paying attention to the world in which oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions take place. Epictetus focuses on this with a few examples of familial relations, the first of which is one of his more morbid-seeming examples: at one point, he states, Ã¢â¬Å"If you kiss your child or your wife, say that you are kissing a human being; for when it dies, you will not be upset.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 12) Through this example, Epictetus tries to firmly ground the Stoic in the reality of the world around him or her and the way nature operates. This is not an optimistic outlook on life: there is no mention of an afterlife or immortality; there is no guarantee against sudden illness or death or misfortune. Instead, Epictetus demands that his followers face the irrefutable fact that the way nature operates is not always the way one wishes it would: loved ones will die eventually, and in the end there is not hing one can do to prevent it. Limitation is the nature of human life. Moreover, it is important for followers of Stoicism to realize that this acknowledgement of the finitude of humans is an unflinching truth for everyone; nature does not deviate from the order of causes and effects. The importance of this truth Epictetus further emphasizes when he states: Ã¢â¬Å"Someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s child is dead, or his wife. There is no one who would not say, Ã¢â¬ËItÃ¢â¬â¢s the lot of a human being.Ã¢â¬â¢ But when oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own dies, immediately it is, Ã¢â¬ËAlas! Poor me!Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 18-19) Loss is a neutral occurrence for everyone because everyone must face it; it is not a horrible thing for one person alone, and if it is, it is because that person failed to realize it might ever happen to him or her. It is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the finitude that makes it horrible, not the actual limitation itselfÃ¢â¬âa concept Epictetus reiterates later when he says: Ã¢â ¬Å"What upsets people is not things themselves but their judgments about the things.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 13) In order not to be miserable because of disappointed hopes caused by bad judgments, we must face the true nature of mankind and of nature.If that was all there was to it, however, Stoicism could be quite simple: it is easy to bemoan the unfairness of lifeÃ¢â¬âperhaps too easy. What Stoicism demands, based on the realization of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own finitude and limitations, is a certain set of actions. It is this set of actions with which two other examples of familial relations in the Handbook deal. The first consists of someone is on a boat that has anchored in a port; that person is free to wander off of the boat and around the island to get food and water, but he must always keep his mind on the boat and the fact that it will inevitably leave at some point. He must keep his attention on the boat so that he may hear when the captain calls him to come back; when the capta in does, no matter what the person on the island is doing, he must Ã¢â¬Å"let all those other things go so that [he] will not be tied up and thrown on the ship like livestock.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 13) This is how to live life in a dignified fashion: whenever death comes as it will inevitably one must be ready to drop everything without turning back, no matter if itÃ¢â¬â¢s a wife or child. If one does not, one will be tied up and thrown into the inevitable like livestock, losing dignity in what should have been a neutral situation. This is an important idea for Epictetus: struggling with or worrying about situations one cannot control is pointless and robs people of human dignity. Since death is something that will happen no matter what and cannot be controlled, nothing should stop a Stoic from facing it, not even his or her family. What one must do is align oneÃ¢â¬â¢s will with what nature asks by complying obediently when death calls, not by demanding that nature fit its act ions to what one wants by struggling and fighting against death.The second example Epictetus offers details something equally important. He states, quite bluntly: Ã¢â¬Å"You are foolish if you want your children and your wife and your friends to live forever, since you are wanting things to be up to you that are not up to you, and things to be yours that are not yours.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 15) This assertion is basically a reiteration of the principle that it is important to acknowledge and accept the way in which nature operates. However, Epictetus goes on to say that: Ã¢â¬Å"A personÃ¢â¬â¢s master is something who has power over what he wants or does not want, either to obtain it or to take it away. Whoever wants to be free, therefore, let him not want or avoid anything that is up to others. Otherwise he will necessarily be a slave.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 15) This is one of the most important points Epictetus makes: he is telling his readers exactly what it means to be free; the onl y way one can be free is to be free of desires, since those are dependent on beings other than oneself. Later in the book, Epictetus reiterates this by asking indignantly: Ã¢â¬Å"If someone turned your body over to just any person who happened to meet you, you would be angry.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 19) But people are not ashamed, he notes, when they allow someone else to be their master by determining their emotions and desires and aversions (Epictetus 19). Even though one cannot be master of nature and what it imposes, one can always be master of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own mind, desires, and judgments, and when one gives those away to someone else by desiring something only the other person can give, one allows the other person to determine oneÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness and allows them to become master of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. The only vestige of absolute freedom is that of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, and desires that depend on other people to fulfill render one a slave. The only way to avoid this is to avo id desiring things beyond oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own absolute power to obtain. This relates directly to the first sentence of the Handbook, which states: Ã¢â¬Å"Some things are up to us and some are not up to us. Our opinions are up to us, and our impulses, desires, and aversions in short, whatever is our own doingÃ¢â¬ ¦If you think that only what is yours is yours, and that what is not your own isÃ¢â¬ ¦you will not do a single thing unwillingly.Ã¢â¬ (Epictetus 11)These last two examples answer the question: when one finally realizes that human life is limited no matter what, when one has finally realized that there are many things not in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s power but in natureÃ¢â¬â¢s, in what ways should one take action? Epictetus demonstrates that when the power is not in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hands but in the workings of nature, the one thing that is in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s power is the ability to adapt oneself to all that comes about and not give into fruitless worry and desire, and in this way not spe nd oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life miserable and unhappy because of frustrated hopes. In another one of his books, the Discourses, Epictetus states that controlling oneÃ¢â¬â¢s passions in light of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s limitations is Ã¢â¬Å"the most urgentÃ¢â¬ ¦for these [the passions] are produced in no other way than by the disappointment of our desires, and the incurring of our aversions. It is this that introduces disturbances, tumults, misfortunes, and calamities; and causes sorrow, lamentation, and envy; and renders us envious and jealous, and thus incapable of listening to reason.Ã¢â¬ (Aurelius 183). While it is not possible to get a complete picture of what Epictetus wanted from his Stoic followers just by looking at familial relationships in the Handbook, a very rough outline can be made of what Epictetus considered to be some of the most important points of his philosophy. Living in accordance with nature seems to be the overarching principle through which his philosophy dictates the a ctions of its followers, and the only way to live in accordance with nature is through both self-knowledge (realization of the finitude of humanity) and self-control (basing actions on self-knowledge, dignity, and freedom).
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
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